Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

What is it?

First off, leukemia is the most common found cancer among young children and ALL is the most common of the types of childhood leukemia.

It affects the blood and primarily the bone marrow. Normally, bone marrow creates blood cells, which help maintain homeostasis in the body.

Leukemia is the rapid abnormal reproduction of leukocytes (white blood cells). Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the cancer of lymphocytes, which specialize in the body’s natural immune system. Lymphocytes are created in bone marrow, later to be seen in the blood stream, lymph nodes, and spleen, to help fight off disease and other abnormalities in the body.



Leukemia_blood_small.jpg An artery with white, and red blood cells, and platelets. The white blood cell count is low concerning this kind of leukemia.


Risk Factors/Causes

*Research has shown that certain types of genetic factors can play into one contracting ALL.
* Defects that cause an abnormal immune system (Down Syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia, and Bloom syndrome) may have an increased chance of contracting ALL.
*Children born as an identical twin can either have a higher risk or are almost certain to get ALL, or other types of leukemia, depending on the time in which the other twin contracts ALL.
*Toxins such as benzene
*Radiation exposure or being exposed to X-rays before birth
*Mutations in chromosome 7 and 10

Signs and Symptoms
*Frequent repeated infection
*Persistent fever
*Constant weakness and/or fatigue
0219fig2.jpg
Darkly stained lymphoblasts seen in ALL

*Swollen lymph nodes
*Paleness
*Easy bruising and/or bleeding
*Difficulty breathing
*Headaches
*Enlarged liver or spleen

Detection?

ALL is usually detected through blood tests, bone marrow aspirations, and/or lumbar punctures (spinal taps).

*When trying to detect ALL while performing a blood test, a complete blood cell count (CBC) is taken. A CBC provides a count of each type of cell in the blood and can detect abnormal leukemia cells.

*A bone marrow aspiration is suggested if a blood test detects unusual cell counts or immature cells in the blood, or if the doctor suspects a person to have leukemia. During this test, multiple samples of bone marrow are examined under a microscope, determining if the individual has leukemia and what type.

*Lumbar punctures are mostly used to determine if ALL has spread to the cerebral spinal fluid. This is also helpful because it can show if it has spread to the central nervous system.

Treatment/Side effects


Chemotherapy : fatigue, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, pain and flu like symptoms.

Radiation therapy :mouth problems, swelling, urinary and bladder changes.

Stem cell transplant : nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.

The most commonly recommended type of treatment is chemotherapy.














Staging Process
Risk groups are used in ALL instead of stages, or the process of the spread of cancer. Risk groups are described as standard, or low risk where children 1-9 whose white blood cell count is lower than 50,000.
Next, is the high risk group which includes of children who are younger than one or older than nine whose white blood cell count is more than 50,000
The five-year relative survival rate for people with ALL is 75-85%.


What kind of doctor would treat ALL?

Hematologist
Medical oncologist
Pediatric surgeon
Radiation oncologist
Endocrinologist
Neurologist
Neuropathologist
Neuroradiologist

Statistics/ Famous People

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia accounts for about 3,800 new cases of leukemia each year.

85% of ALL children will survive past the 5 year point.

Occurs in 1 out of every 29,000 children in the United States each year.

8 out of 10 people with ALL will get a remission.

Accounts for 23% of children diagnosed with cancer who are younger than 15.

Jose Carreras- actorbiography02.jpg








Andrew McMahon-singer/ song writerandrew_mcmahon.jpg











Works Cited
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children - National Cancer Institute
." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute . N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/all-in-children>.

" Google Image Result for http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Reports/Images/0219fig2.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Reports/Images/0219fig2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thepatientadvocate.ca/rHYiXUhbTreI/&usg=__TX9p5qYUfupGeqVI0PdZUfNI27k=&h=359&w=482&sz=209&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=A5O6a4F5l6OuIM:&tbnh=147>.

" Google Image Result for http://www.cancer.net/patient/Multimedia/Medical%20Illustrations%20Gallery/Thumbnail/Leukemia_blood_small.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:www.cancer.net/patient/Multimedia/Medical%2520Illustrations%2520Gallery/Thumbnail/Leukemia_blood_small.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer%2BTypes/Leukemia%2B-%2BAcute%2BLymphoblastic%2B-%2BALL%2B->.

"Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.webmd.com/cancer/tc/leukemia-acute-lymphoblastic-childhood-treatment-patient-information-nci-pdq-treatment-option>.
"Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia." Cancer Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. http://cancer.emedtv.com/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia/childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia.html.

ChildrensHospital. " YouTube - ALL: What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia? ." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2011.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeOmtJHxyXU&feature=related

Hayes, Steven J. "Jos Carreras Biography." 21st Century Basics, 2004-2006. Web. 26 Feb 2011. <http://www.basicfamouspeople.com/index.php?aid=5779>.

"Leukemia - Acute Lymphoblastic - ALL - Childhood: Statistics | Cancer.Net." Doctor-approved cancer information from ASCO | Cancer.Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer+Types/Leukemia+-+Acute+Lymphoblastic+-+ALL+-+Childhood?sectionTitle=Statistics>.

"Leukemia - Acute Lymphoblastic - ALL - Childhood: Statistics | Cancer.Net." Doctor-approved cancer information from ASCO | Cancer.Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer+Types/Leukemia+-+Acute+Lymphoblastic+-+ALL+-+Childhood?sectionTitle=Statistics>.

"Leukemia - Acute Lymphoblastic - ALL - Childhood: Statistics | Cancer.Net." Doctor-approved cancer information from ASCO | Cancer.Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer+Types/Leukemia+-+Acute+Lymphoblastic+-+ALL+-+Childhood?sectionTitle=Statistics>.
Version:1.0 StartHTML:0000000105 EndHTML:0000002586 StartFragment:0000002288 EndFragment:0000002550

" LEUKEMIA, ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC; ALL - OMIM Result ." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/613065>.
NHSChoices. "YouTube - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOziZ78kE3M&feature=related>.
"Who was a famous person who was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia? | Acute Leukemia." Acute Leukemia. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. <http://www.acuteleukemias.com/who-was-a-famous-person-who-was-diagnosed-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia/>.