Do some research and find the names of some diseases and disorders of the muscular system. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments of these diseases and disorders.

One common muscular disease is muscular dystrophy (MD). This disease is caused by a genetic mutation. The most common types of muscular dystrophy seem to be caused by a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein dystrophin. Generally, voluntary muscles become progressively weaker. In the late stages of muscular dystrophy, fat and connective tissue often replace muscle fibers. Some types of muscular dystrophy affect heart muscles, other involuntary muscles and other organs.

Symptoms of muscular dystrophy:
-Muscle weakness
-Noticeable lack of coordination
-Progressive crippling.

There is currently no cure muscular dystrophy, however, medications and therapy can slow the course of the disease. Physical therapy is done to provide regular range-of-motion exercises to keep joints as flexible as possible. Often times, braces, canes, walkers, and wheelchairs can help those suffering from muscular dystrophy maintain their independence.
external image dwe00212g01.gif

Another muscular disorder is fibromyalgia. Although doctors currently do not know what causes it, it is believed to be centered around a theory called “central sensitization”. Basically, this means that people with fibromylagia have a lower threshold for pain because of the increased sensitivity in the brain to pain signals.
Symptoms of fibromyalgia can vary according to the weather, a person’s stress level, physical activity, or even the time of day.

The most Common symptoms include:
-Widespread pain
-Fatigue and sleep disturbances
-Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
-Headaches and facial pain
-Heightened sensitivity

The treatments for fibromyalgia include medications and self-care. The most common medications are anti-depressants and muscle relaxants.

A poison produced by bacteria that is sometimes present in foods not properly contained causes botulism, or severe food poisoning. The toxin prevents motor neurons from releasing acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions. Muscle fibers are then not stimulated to contract and the loss of movement results, then the muscles controlling breathing fail and the individual suffocates. Medical researchers have developed an antitoxin, to treat botulism. If motor neuron endings that have already been affected by the person cannot be saved.
external image fibromyalgia.gif

Tetanus (lockjaw) is a bacterial disease in which a bacterial toxin causes the repetitive stimulation of muscle fibers, resulting in convulsive muscle spasms and rigidity.This disease is very serious but can be treated. Treatment involves removal of infected tissue.
external image cover0821-tetanus.jpg

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that causes muscles to weaken. An auto-immune disease is one in which anti-bodies attack and damage the bodies own normal cells, causing tissue destruction. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies attack receptors on the membranes of muscle fibers that receive acetylcholine from motor neurons. Unable to receive acetylcholine, the muscle fibers cannot be stimulated to contract and weakness develops. Depending on the severity of the disease, a person may have difficulty moving their eyes, seeing clearly, walking, speaking clearly, chewing and swallowing, and even breathing because of the muscles affected. There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but drugs have been developed that control the symptoms. The disease can only causes death if the respiratory muscles are affected.
external image mgravis.jpg


Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon. It causes pain and tenderness near a joint. It usually occurs in the shoulders, elbows, knees, hips, heels or wrists. Injuries and overuse are common causes of Tendinitis. Diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause it. Stretching and cross- training will help to prevent it. Tendinitis can be treated with rest, ice and medicine to relieve pain and decrease swelling. Some other treatments would include ultrasound, physical therapy, steroid injections and surgery.


Myopathy is a disease of the skeletal muscles when they become weak or wasted. It is usually degenerative but sometimes caused by chemical poisoning, drug side effects or immune system disorder. This disease causes the muscles to become weak or wasted. It is not a very common disease. Rarely will patients have to become fully dependent on a wheel chair.
external image akbarnia_fig2a-BB.jpg


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease is a nerve deterioration disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that are responsible for voluntary muscle movement. When affected these muscles can no longer send messages to muscles. This causes muscle weakness, twitching, and in some cases the inability to move the arms, legs, and body. The condition slowly gets worse over time, and is progressive. When the muscles in the chest area stop working, it becomes hard or impossible to breathe on one's own. People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis eventually need a breathing machine. There is no known cure for this disease. One treatment for the disease is a medicine called riluzole. This drug may prolong life, but does not reverse or stop the disease from getting worse.
external image 300px-

Cramps are is an involuntary contracted muscle that does not relax. Cramps can affect any skeletal muscle. Cramps can be caused by a group of muscles or one individual muscle. The areas most commonly affected by muscle cramps would be the gastrocnemius, the hamstrings, the quadriceps, and the feet, hands, arms, and abdomen. Some things that contribute to muscle cramps would be poor conditioning, exercising, dehydration and depletion of electrolytes.

Compartment syndrome
is when pain in the muscles builds to a dangerous level in the area formed by the fascia and the ligaments and tendons called a compartment. This pressure build up causes the nerves and muscle cells to not get nourishment. If the pressure builds to high the lack of oxygen can cause harm to blood vessels, muscle cells, and nerves. Cause of this disease are severely bruised muscle, crush injury, complication after surgery, and blockage of circulation.

Non-surgical treatments include:
1.Avoiding doing activities that cause pain and swelling
2.Applying ice and elevating the limb slightly
3.Taking aspirin or ibuprofen to reduce inflammation
4.Increased cushioning in shoes

For surgical treatment a small incision is made in the skin and the fascia over the effected compartment to relieve the pressure.

Myotonic Dystrophy

This disorder causes delayed muscle relaxation following contraction. It causes facial and limb weakness, cataracts, and irregular heartbeat. Myotonic Dystrophy is caused by an expanding gene that grows with each generation. The symptoms become more severe as the gene enlarges throughout the generations.


Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

This disease slowly progresses weakness in muscles of the hands and feet and also decreases tendon reflexes. Nerve cells can’t stimulate the involved muscles. An extra gene impairs the insulating covering around the affected

The communication between your muscles and nervous system breaks down because a neuromuscular disorder causes your neurons to become unhealthy or die. As a result, your voluntary muscles weaken and start to waste away. A person will experience twitching, cramps, aches and pain, joint and movement problems, and sometimes even heart problems. Some examples of neuromuscular disorders are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and spinal muscular atrophy.

1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): People with ALS will notice trouble with walking, running, writing, and speech. After awhile a person will lose all strength and will not be able to move. Then their chest muscles fail, and most end up dieing from respiratory failure. This disease normally hits males between the age of 40 and 60. The cause of ALS is unknown, and there is no cure. Medicines can only relieve symptoms and might prolong survival.

2. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): People with MS will notice visual disturbances, muscle weakness, trouble with coordination and balance, sensations such as numbness or prickling, and thinking and memory problems. MS mostly affects women between the age of 20 and 40. It’s an auto-immune disease, and does not have a cure. Medicine will help control the symptoms and slow down the process. Occupational and physical therapy will also help keep the muscles stronger.

3. Myasthenia Gravis: Myasthenia gravis mainly affects the muscles in your head. Some of the common symptoms of this disease are trouble with eye and eyelid movement, facial expressions, and swallowing. If people with this disease follow the treatment plan then they will most likely live a pretty normal life. The medicines will help improve nerve to muscle messages, make muscles stronger, and keep the body from making too many abnormal antibodies. Sometimes people will even have their thymus glands removed.

4. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA): SMA is a genetic disorder than is carried by the parents, even though the parents show no symptoms. The neurons are weakened and people have trouble walking, crawling, breathing, swallowing, and head and neck control. There are many types of SMA, so he survival rate depends on what type you have. There is no cure for SMA, but physical therapy and medicines will help. Some of the types of SMA are fatal.

5. Polymyositis is a connective tissue disease that triggers inflammation and muscular weakness. Of cause of polmyositis is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that can be possible triggered by a viral infection of muscle tissue. Although any person of any age and sex can be affected the disease is more common in woman between the ages of 50 to 70 years. The muscle weakness develops gradually over the course of a couple weeks or months. The inflammation may even spread to other areas of the body including the heart. The symptoms differ between individuals therefore it is hard o diagnose. It may even be mistaken fir muscular dystrophy. In many cases this disorder is associated with other autoimmune disorders of connective tissue such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.

Symptons
-Hips and shoulders are usually the first to be affected
-Muscle wastage
-Muscular weakness
-Muscle pain
-Fatigue
-Breathlessness
-Difficulties in swallowing
-Tremors of the hands
-Clumsiness, tendency to fall over


Treatment Options
Some people recover, some die from complications and most will respond satisfactorily to treatment.
-Corticosteriods- to dampen the activity of the immune system, also reduces inflammation.
-Immunosuppressive drugs- such as methotrexate and azathioprine
-Plasmapheresis- the antibodies that are responsible for attacking muscle tissue are removed from the bloodstream. The blood cells that is taken from the patient is returned, leaving the antibodies behind in the plasma.
-Physical therapy- Helps strengthen the muscles.



Terms
Definition
Cause
Atony
A state in which muscles are floppy, lacking their normal elasticity.
Many possible causes.
Atrophy
Generally, the wasting away of a normally developed organ or tissue due to degeneration of cells. In the case of muscle tissue, the individual muscle fibers decrease in size due to a progressive loss of myofibrils.
Generally, possible causes include undernourishment, disuse or agiing.

(a) Disuse Atrophy : muscles atrophy because they are not used. Bedridden individuals and people with casts that immobilize large muscle groups may experience disuse atrophy because the flow of nerve impulses to the inactive muscle is greatly reduced.

(b) Denervation atrophy : occurs when a muscle's nerve impulses cease in it's motor neurons.
Cramp
Prolonged painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle.
It is sometimes caused by an imbalance of the salts in the body, but is more often a result of fatigue, imperfect posture, or stress.
Fibrositis
Inflammation of fibrous connective tissues in muscles. It often affects the muscles of the trunk and back.
It may be a symptom of another disease, such as Sciatica, but in most cases the cause is unknown.
Muscle Fatigue
Tiredness following prolonged or intense activity.
May be due to de-hydration (loss of water and NaCl, that is "sodium chloride", or "common salt"), and the waste products of metabolism accumulating in the muscles faster than they can be removed by the venous blood.
Myositis
Inflammation of muscle fibers / Any of a group of muscle diseases in which inflammation and degenerative changes occur.
(A minority are caused by bacterial or parasitic infections.)
Spasm
A sustained involuntary muscular contraction (which may occur either as part of a generalized disorder such as spastic paralysis, or as a local response to an otherwise unconnected painful condition.)
May occur either as part of a generalized disorder such as spastic paralysis, or as a local response to an otherwise unconnected painful condition.
Spasticity
Muscular Hypertonicity (i.e. an increase in the state of readiness of muscle fibers to contract; an increase in partial contraction) with an increased resistance to stretch. Moderate cases show movement requiring great effort and a lack of normal coordination, while slight cases show exaggerated movements that are coordinated.
 

Resistance to the passive movement of a limb that is maximal at the beginning of the movement and gives way as more pressure is applied.
This is a symptom of damage to the cortiscospinal tracts in the brain or spinal cord. It is usually accompanied by weakness in the affected limb.
Sprain
Injury to a ligament, caused by over stretching.
Over stretching of ligament.
Strain
Excessive stretching or working of a muscle, resulting in pain and swelling of the muscle.
Damage to muscle caused by over stretching.