Nails


The nail is made of a protein called Keratin, it allows us to have grip, lets us grasps, and manipulate objects and gives our fingers some protection. Epidermal cells in the nail matrix form it. And it grows at a millimeter a week.


Parts of the nail and there functions-
  • Nail bed- It is the tissue underneath the nail it is light pink due to the tissue underneath
  • Nail matrix- this is responsible for cell growth.
  • Nail root- this part of the nail is beneath the skin behind the fingernail and extends several millimeters into the finger. The fingernail root produces most of the of the nail and the nail bed. The edge of the nail root is seen as a white, crescent moon shaped structure called the lunula.
  • Nail plate- is the hard and translucent portion of the nail, composed of keratin
  • Cuticle- The cuticle is area between the skin of the finger and the nail plate fusing the two structures together, providing a waterproof barrier.
  • Hyponychium- The hyponychium is the area between the nail plate and the fingertip. it provides a waterproof barrier.
  • Free edge- This edge of the nail protects the fingertip which has many sensory receptors
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Why do we have nails-
Fingernails are essentially flattened claws that all primates-like humans- have evolved with to give primates a broader fingertip. Unlike most animals we primates have used our nails not for slashing or for fighting in general but a way to provide our fingers to gain a larger broader finger, which gives us a much better grip with our hands.

Nail disorders-
Infections of the nails and the surrounding skin can result from injury, ingrown nails, split and separated nails and other more serious conditions. Infections not only cause pain, but they can also affect the way your nails grow and can impact your overall health. There are many different types of nail disorders or infections, these disorders can be caused by many different things. An infection occurs when foreign bodies, such as viruses, fungi and bacteria, get inside your body. What our nails can help show us- Our nails are able to help show many different diseases or problems that the body is having, Some white areas here, a rosy red coloring there, or some bumps and ridges may be a sign of some deadly diseases in the body. Problems in the liver, lungs, and heart can show up in your nails. The nails stores many different chemicals from inside the body which can be dangerous chemicals from different vital organs.

Common Nail warning signs-

Pale Nails

Very pale nails can sometimes be a sign of a serious illness, such as: anemia, foreshadowing a future heart failure, liver disease, or malnutrition.
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White Nails

If the nails are mostly white with darker rims, this could be a sign of liver problems, like hepatitis.
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Yellow Nails

One of the most common causes of yellow nails is a fungal infection. In rare cases, yellow nails can indicate a more serious condition such as severe thyroid disease, lung disease, diabetes or psoriasis.
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Bluish Nails

Nails with a bluish tint can mean the body isn't getting enough oxygen. This could indicate an infection in the lungs, such as pneumonia. It can sometimes also indicate a problem with the heart.
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Rippled Nails

If the nail surface is rippled or pitted, this may be an early sign of psoriasis or inflammatory arthritis.
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Cracked or Split Nails

Dry, brittle nails that crack frequently or split have sometimes been connected to thyroid disease. Splitting or cracking added with a yellowish color is likely due to a fungal infection.
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Puffy Nail Fold

If the skin around the nail appears red and has a white puffy part of the nail plate, this inflammation of the nail folds. It may be the cause of lupus or another connective tissue disorder.
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Dark Lines Beneath the Nail

Dark lines beneath the nail are sometimes caused by the skin cancer melanoma. If seen the person should talk to their doctor, the melanoma is the most dangerous and deadly skin cancer.
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Gnawed Nails

Biting your nails maybe nothing more than an annoying habit that no one likes, but in some cases it's a sign of persistent anxiety, it would help from treatment. Nail biting has also been connected to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
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HAIR
What is Hair?
Hair is a specialized structure of the skin that has been perfected over the many year of mammalian existence. Human hair is strategically placed over the body to best suit the living habits of Homo sapiens. Hair’s main functions are to:
-protect the body from infection
-regulate body temperature
-sense touch
Hair is made of a protein called keratin. Keratin is a very tough protein that comes from the lower layers of the epidermis and is use in the protection of skin and the make-up of hair and nails.

Structure of hair

Hair has three parts the bulb, follicle and shaft.
-Bulb: provides a base
-Follicle: can be divided into 3 regions: the lower segment (bulb and suprabulb), the middle segment (isthmus), and the upper segment (infundibulum).
-Shaft: consists of a cuticle and a cortex of hard-keratin surrounding
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Phases of Hair Growth
1.Anagen: a growth phase where each hair is growing and will spend many years in this phase.
2.Catagen: a transitional phase where the hair growth slows and the follicle begins to shrink
3.Telogen: A resting phase where the growth stops and the old hair detaches from the follicle and is pushed out by a new hair. This new hair begins anagen.
a. Growth rate is different for all people
In the human scalp, the anagen phase lasts approximately 3-4 years, while the catagen phase lasts about 2-3 weeks, and the telogen phase lasts approximately 3 months. Approximately 84% of scalp hairs are in the anagen phase, 1-2% are in the catagen phase, and 10-15% are in the telogen phase.
Hair Conditions//
1. Head Lice: Tiny insect that feed on the blood of the scalp.
2. Telogen effuvium: After personal shock hair can fall out in large patches.
3. Folliculitis: Inflammation of the hair follicle due to an infection typically caused by staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
4. Piedra (trichomycosis nodularis): Fungal infection of the hair shaft where hard nodules of fungus are attached to hair fibers. This can cause hair loss.
5. Hirsutism: A condition where women may develop male-patterned hair. This could be due to an abnormal amount of testosterone.
6. Dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis): Mild inflammation of the scalp causing scaly skin that may itch and flake off. Can also affect face and ear.
7. Tinea Capitis (ringworm): A fungal infection of the scalp, no worm is involved.
Fungal toe infection video-
http://www.livefromtheclinic.channel4.com/case-videos/lftcw6fungaltoe1
Ingrown toenail video-
http://www.livefromtheclinic.channel4.com/case-videos/lftcw3ingrowntoenail
Forensic usage of nails-
Drugs, chemicals and other substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. The hair and nails are easy to observed by a professional and only require a small sample size to analysis. The hair and nails help show many different drugs or chemicals inside the body which help make picking suspects easier.
Works Cited
"A Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine." A Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://meded.ucsd.edu/clinicalmed/upper.htm>.
__"Bernard Buachi's Blog." Bernard Buachi's Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <____http://bernardbuachi.wordpress.com/2011/11/09/what-your-nails-say-about-your-health/>.__

"Case Videos - Embarrassing Bodies: Live from the Clinic - Channel 4." Case Videos - Embarrassing Bodies: Live from the Clinic - Channel 4. Live from the Clinic, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <__http://www.livefromtheclinic.channel4.com/case-videos/lftcw6fungaltoe1>.__

"Case Videos - Embarrassing Bodies: Live from the Clinic - Channel 4." Case Videos - Embarrassing Bodies: Live from the Clinic - Channel 4. Live from the Clinic, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.livefromtheclinic.channel4.com/case-videos/lftcw3ingrowntoenail>.
"Gnawed Nails." Gnawed Nails. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <__http://www.makeuptalk.com/t/125943/gnawed-nails>.__

"Hair (Human Anatomy): Image, Parts, Follicle, Growth, Problems, and More." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <__http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/picture-of-the-hair>.__

"Hair Anatomy." Hair Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/835470-overview>.
Hawks, John. "Curiosities: Why Do We Have Fingernails?" (May 21, 2007). N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.news.wisc.edu/13815>.
__"Nail." About.com Dermatology. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://dermatology.about.com/cs/nailanatomy/a/nailan__atomy.htm>.
"Puberty & My First Body Hair." SteadyHealth.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Why_is_body_hair_importanta411.html>.
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14726882>.__
Shareef, Rishan M. "M.RISHAN SHAREEF COLLECTION OF ARTICLES." : Finger Nails to Predict Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://mrishaanshareef.blogspot.com/2008/10/finger-nails-to-predict-health.html>.
"Slideshow: What Your Nails Say About Your Health." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/ss/slideshow-nails-and-health>.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 08 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nails/WO00