HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA

The videos below give brief overviews of what Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is, the different treatments, how to prevent it, and how it effects the body. Click to learn more.
http://www.livestrong.com/video/3219-hodgkins-disease-health-byte/
http://www.careflash.com/video/hodgkins-lymphoma

What part of the body does this disease affect and what is normal function of the body part(s)?

● Since Hodgkin’s is a type of lymphoma, it is found in the lymph system.
● The normal function of the lymph system is to fight off disease.
● The lymph nodes, which are affected by this cancer, release lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that important in regulating and carrying out most activities in the lymph system.
● Hodgkin’s can also affect the spleen. The spleen acts as one of the body’s filters. It removes old red blood cells (erythrocytes) from the blood supply, as well as remove, store, and produce white blood cell lymphocytes. These cells produce antibodies to fight off foreign matter in the body. (Disease and infections).
● Also, as the cancer develops in the later stages, it can also affect other body organs, like the lungs, liver, and bone marrow.

What are some risk factors associated with contracting this cancer?
● Age- People between the ages of 15 to 40 are at higher risk than anybody else. Also, if you are above the age of 55.
● Family history
● Sex- Males are slightly more likely to develop Hodgkin’s Lymphoma than females.
● A compromised immune system- HIV/AIDS or organ transplants that require certain medications put a person at a higher risk.
● A past Epstein-Barr infection

What are some causes for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
● B-Cell Lymphoma 6- A gene on chromosome 3 breaks off and relocates to another part part of the chromosome. About 40% of diffuse large cell lymphomas are associated with this chromosomal translocation.
● A mutation in the KLHDC8B gene. This abnormality has been proven to cause Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

What are the most common signs and symptoms of this disease?
● Fatigue
● Night sweats
● Fever
● Itching
● Loss of appetite
● Clubbing of fingers or toes
● Hair loss
● Excessive sweating


How is it detected and/or diagnosed?
● Biopsy of one of the following: Suspected tissue, bone marrow, lymph node, or any other site.
● Blood chemistry tests
● CT scans on chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
● PET scan
● Physical examination

What is the staging process like for this type on cancer?
There are four different stages to Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
● Stage 1: Cancer is not found in lymph node group.
● Stage 2: Cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups on the same side as the diaphragm.
● Stage 3: Cancer is found in lymph node groups on bot sides of the diaphragm.
● Stage 4: Cancer is found in one or more organs other than the lymph nodes.


What is the survival rate based on the stage it is detected?
Five year survival rates:
● Stage 1: 95% chance
● Stage 2: 90% chance
● Stage 3: 80% chance
● Stage 4: 65% chance

external image hodgkins-lymphoma-statistics-mortality.jpg


What are the types of treatment available for this cancer? What is the most commonly recommended type of treatment?
● For the early stages, radiation therapy is recommended on the parts that are cancerous.
● For the later stages where the cancer has spread, chemotherapy is recommended.
● For patients who have reoccurring Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after initial radiation therapy, further measures should be taken. This includes, high dose chemotherapy and the possibility of a stem cell transplant.
● The most common type of treatment is radiation therapy, sometimes combined with chemotherapy depending on the stage it is on.
● Also, bone marrow transplants can be another form of treatment.

List and describe some side effects of each type of treatment available.
Side effects of radiation therapy:
● Tiredness
● Loss of hair
● Skin becomes red, tender, dry, or itchy
● Sore throat and dry cough
● Vomiting and nausea
● Loss of fertility
● Change in diet
Side effects of chemotherapy:
● Hair loss
● Poor appetite
● Nausea and vomiting
● Easy bruising and bleeding
● Tiredness and weakness
● Mouth and lip sores

What type of doctor treats this type of cancer?
● An oncologist or hematologist can diagnose and treat Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
● An oncologist specializes and treats cancer, and a hematologist specializes and treats diseases of the blood.

List of statistics involving this type of cancer.
● There are 7,000 annual cases in the USA.
● Hodgkin’s Lymphoma accounts for about 1% of all cancers detected in the US
● Approximately 1 in every 58,875 people will be diagnosed with this type of cancer in the USA.
● There are approximately 4,500 new cases in males, and 3,500 new cases in females.
● Below, is a graph that shows the mortality rate by gender, due to Hodgkin’s Lymphoma from the years 1970-2008.

Famous people that have survived or died from this type of cancer.
● Arlen Specter- A US Senator
● Hall of Fame baseball player Roger Maris
● Hockey player Mario Lemieux

Citations:
Bigalow, Katherine. "Katherine Bigelow: Hollywood’s Roger Maris « The Radio Patriot." The Radio Patriot. 25 Feb. 2010. Web. 25 Mar. 2011. < http://radiopatriot.wordpress.com/2010/03/08/katherine-bigelow-hollywoods-
roger-maris/>.
Campbell, Matt. "Specter: Stimulus Vote Created "Irreconcilable" Difference with Republicans | Its Our City." WHYY. 28 Apr. 2009. Web. 25 Mar. 2011.
-irreconcilable-difference/>.
CareFlash. "Hodgkin's Lymphoma." Care Flash. 18 Mar. 2011. Web. 25 Mar. 2011. < http://www.careflash.com/video/hodgkins-lymphoma >.
Davis. "Hodgkin's Disease Health Video | LIVESTRONG.COM." LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools. 23 Oct. 2008. Web. 25 Mar. 2011. < http://www.livestrong.com/video/3219-hodgkins-disease-health-byte/ >.
"Hodgkin's Lymphoma Statistics | ENCOGNITIVE.COM." ENCOGNITIVE.COM | Natural Health Is Our DNA. Web. 25 Mar. 2011. < http://www.encognitive.com/node/10465 >.